By Terry Heck
What is logical error and cognitive bias?
In short, both logical error and cognitive bias are failures of reason – errors of thought that can lead to misconceptions, distorted views, erroneous judgments, and finally, skewed, irrational beliefs (about oneself and / or the world around them).
Since the human brain is susceptible to similar errors and distortions, it (the ‘we’ as human beings) makes the same errors so frequently that we give them official names (e.g., Straman Fallasi, Resinci Bias, etc.).
Thus, they are similar in that each is a common thought error.
The difference between logical fallacy and cognitive bias
The primary difference between logical fallacy and cognitive bias is that the former is a failure of cause that usually occurs in the moment when the biases represent the individual, the ongoing pre-existing tendency for future causal error.
An important difference between confusion and bias is how bias determines / influences / distorts how you evaluate, on an ongoing basis, data, facts or situations. Logical fallacies, however, have more to do with how you claim and make arguments.
An example of a logical error
Inside What is confirmation biasI said, “One of many Cognitive bias, Based on fears (e.g., ‘I’ll lose my job’) or incorrect and / or incomplete data (e.g., a stereotype), anyone who is a victim of confirmation bias will form an opinion and then search and / or overvalue data that Supports that view. In the previous example of losing your job, because of the anxiety of losing your job, you will start to ‘target’ things that seem to support that theory. “
For example, common ad homonym fallacies occur when someone attacks the holder of that claim instead of the claim and attacks the validity of a judgment or claim.
Person A: A politician said that we should invest more money in education.
Person B: I don’t like that politician. He lies about everything and has a history of bad ideas.
While here both the politician and person B may be (more or less) correct in their claim (that we should invest more money in education and the politician in question may have a history of really bad ideas), person B is attacking person intellectually instead of criticizing the claim. . Classic advertising hominem.
Recency is an example of bias
However, a person prone to recession bias will support recent events and data on a more complete picture of reality or truth. This bias can cause the individual to overemphasize some data and completely miss other data – and thus create more confusion and possibly more cognitive bias and related worldview distortions.
Definition of a logical error
A logical fallacy is a mistake in reasoning. This happens when someone draws a conclusion that does not follow from the evidence or when someone relies on a flawed assumption. There are all sorts of logical errors, but they all share a common effect: to confuse people by saying that the conclusion is valid.
Definition of a cognitive bias
A cognitive bias is a type of thought error that causes judgments and decisions to be systematically distorted. This can lead to misconceptions about people, situations and the world in general. Cognitive biases are often studied in psychology because they can affect a person’s thinking, feelings, and behavior.
Types of logical errors
There are dozens of logical errors – a few examples include Straw Man, False Dilemma, Ad Hominame, Slippery Shield, False Dilemma, and Bandwagon Fallacy.
Types of cognitive bias
There are also dozens of cognitive biases কয়েকটি a few examples include sinking cost errors, confirmation biases, gambler errors, and anchor biases.